About the Maryland Court System
The Maryland court system has four levels: two trial courts and two appellate courts. The trial courts consider evidence presented in a case and make judgments based on the facts, the law and legal precedent (prior legal decisions from a higher court). Appellate courts review a trial court's actions and decisions and decide whether the trial judge properly followed the law and legal precedent.
Maryland has two appellate courts: the Court of Appeals, the highest court, and the Court of Special Appeals, the intermediate appellate court. These courts review a trial court’s (District or Circuit Court) actions and decisions in given cases and decide whether the trial judge properly followed the law and legal precedent.
Circuit Courts generally handles more serious criminal cases, major civil cases, including juvenile and other family law cases such as divorce, custody and child support and most cases appealed from the District Court, orphans’ courts and certain administrative agencies. Circuit courts also hear domestic violence cases. Each County and the City of Baltimore has a circuit court. Cases may involve juries or sometimes are heard by a judge only.
Most people experience the court system through the District Court. Cases heard here include motor vehicle (traffic) and boating violations and other misdemeanors and specified felonies, domestic violence and peace order petitions, landlord-tenant disputes, small claims and other civil cases involving limited dollar amounts, and replevin (recovery of wrongfully taken or detained goods). Each county and the City of Baltimore has at least one District Court location. A case in the District Court is argued before a judge only: there are no jury trials in District Court.
The Orphans’ Court is a specialized court that handles wills, estates, and other probate matters and limited aspects of guardianship.
Other Bodies in Maryland
Office of Administrative Hearings
The Office of Administrative Hearings listens to contested executive branch adminsitrative law cases, except for those concerning officials or agencies exempted by law.
Federal Courts in Maryland
Federal courts are authorized by the U.S. Constitution to deal with issues involving laws enacted by Congress, as contrasted with state courts, which apply the laws of their state and local governments. For more information, see the U.S. Courts' website.
Changing your criminal record
This article covers expungement and pardons and includes how to remove your DNA from the state's DNA database.
Calculating Child Support
Maryland uses a formula to calculate child support. This formula is called the Child Support Guidelines. The court will usually order the amount of child support that the Guidelines say is correct unless someone can show that the Guidelines would be unjust and inappropriate in a particular case.
Child Custody in Maryland
Custody and visitation are the legal terms for court decisions about how the child will spend his/her time between parents (or others).
Grounds for Absolute Divorce
To obtain an absolute divorce, one spouse must first prove that at least one ground for absolute divorce exists. This page gives a brief description of each ground for divorce in Maryland.
Marital and Non-Marital Property
With a few important exceptions, all the property that was acquired during a marriage is considered marital property.
Breaking a Lease
Leases are binding contracts between the landlord(s) and the tenant(s). Maryland law imposes certain conditions on that contract such as limiting late fees to 5% of a monthly rental payment, but in those areas where the law does not impose limits, the landlord(s) and tenant(s) are free to negotiate their own agreement.
This article defines what a security deposit is and what is required of tenants and landlords.
“Asylum” is a way to apply for refugee protections from within the United States, including protection from deportation.
Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA)
Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) is a form of immigration relief for certain qualified young people who came to the United States as children.
How Will Divorce or Separation Affect My Immigration Status?
If you are in the United States on a visa that was granted based on your spouse’s application, a divorce or separation may affect your lawful status and ability to stay in the United States.
Immigration and Employment
This article explains the employment visa categories that are available in the United States for non-citizens.
Immigration Court Information
This article provides information on Immigration Court (also called deportation or removal proceedings) and links to helpful resources for more information.
Immigration Options for Victims of Crimes: U-Visa
The U-Visa is a form of immigration relief for victims of certain criminal activities and is implemented as a tool to aid law enforcement in identifying perpetrators and aiding victims.
Information for Immigrants and New Americans
This article contains helpful tips for immigrants and new Americans.
This article describes notario fraud, or immigration legal services fraud, and what to do if you are a victim of notario fraud.
Representation in Immigration Cases
his article will describe things to consider when hiring someone to represent you in your immigration case.
Special Immigrant Juvenile Status
Special Immigrant Juvenile Status (SIJS) is a form of immigration relief available to undocumented children living in the U.S. who have been abandoned, abused, or neglected by at least one parent and meet several other eligibility requirements.
A standby guardian is a person appointed by a parent (or parents) of a child to take care of the child in the event that the parent is mentally or physically incapable of doing so, or subject to an adverse immigration action.
Temporary Protected Status (TPS)
TPS provides a temporary safe haven to certain foreign nationals in the United States who are unable to return to their countries of origin for safety reasons.
Frequently Asked Questions about Wills
A Will is a written legal document prepared for one person, called the testator, which sets forth what is to happen after death to his or her property, called the estate, and who is to be named as guardian to care for any minor children.
Powers of Attorney
A power of attorney is a document in which you give someone legal authority to act for you.
Emancipation of a Minor
Emancipation of a minor generally refers to the process of freeing a minor (person under age 18) from parental control.